ISSaR

BIODIVERSITY

 

a – Why should we care about this theme?


Evaluation:

Unknown (XX)


Key message:

High biological diversity is important for healthy ecosystems as well as for human well-being.


Assessment:

Healthy ecosystems provide services that are the foundation for human well-being. At the same time, biological diversity (biodiversity) underpins ecosystem functioning and, therefore, the crucial ability of nature to provide humans with life-supporting ecosystem services. In addition, biodiversity has its intrinsic value.

The priorities in the Convention on Biological Diversity implemented at the national level were set up in the National Biodiversity Strategy of the Czech Republic.

The State Programme of Nature Conservation and Landscape Protection represents the strategic framework of biodiversity protection on the national level. The program, adopted in June 1998, was updated by the Government’s call No. 1497/2009 on 30th November 2009.


EEA indicators:

Not relevant


[UP]

b – What are the state (S) and impacts (I) related to this theme, including impacts on the natural environment and human health/well-being, both at national level and in transboundary terms?


Evaluation:

Inadequate (U1)


Key message:

More and more biodiversity components in the Czech Republic have been in unfavourable conservation status.


Assessment:

The Czech Republic has a surprisingly high abundance of wild plant and animal species. In total, there are 73 000–102 000 species within the country, of them 2 800 higher plant species, 50 000 invertebrate species and 577 vertebrate species.

The recently published comprehensive report Nature and the Landscape in the Czech Republic 2009, Report on the State (CZ version) demonstrates that only 17 % of the whole country´s territory is covered with natural and semi-natural habitats.

According to the recent national Red Lists, 34 % of mammalian, 52 % of breeding birds, 50 % of reptiles, 43 % of amphibians, 43 % of fish, 60 % of higher plant and 43 % of moss species have been threatened (click here for more information, CZ version). The above report shows that 878 species have become extinct in the Czech Republic, of them 84 fungi, 27 bryophytes, 118 vascular plants, 627 invertebrates and 22 vertebrates. For more details, see the biodiversity indicators based on the SEBI 2010 outputs (also see Fig. A, Fig. B, Fig. C).

In the Czech Republic, 90 of plant species flora have been classified as invasive alien species. The list of animal invasion alien species in the country has been also published.


EEA indicators:

SEBI 003, SEBI 008, SEBI 002, SEBI 005


[UP]

c – What are the related key drivers (D) and pressures (P) at national level?


Evaluation:

Inadequate (U1)


Key message:

There are the main drivers of biodiversity decline – habitat fragmentation, degradation and loss of some ecosystem function, invasive alien species and contamination of the environment.


Assessment:

According to the above report, the main drivers of biodiversity decline in the Czech Republic include habitat fragmentation, degradation and loss, invasive alien species, contamination of the environment by various pollutants and eutrophication. In future, climate change shall substantially contribute to the wildlife population and habitat decline and loss of some ecosystem functions.

Trends in 152 bird species using data collected by the Breeding Bird Monitoring Programme are presented in Fig. here.


EEA indicators:

SEBI 010, SEBI 011, SEBI 013, SEBI 001, CSI 009


[UP]

d – Which responses (R) have been put in place or are planned at national level?


Evaluation:

Inadequate but improving (U1+)


Key message:

Implementing EU directives and national legislation, sustainable use and inter-sectoral approach will improve conservation status of biological diversity components in the Czech Republic.


Assessment:

Under Act No 114/1992 Gazette on the Protection of Nature and the Landscape, as amended later (hereinafter the Act), there are six categories of Specially Protected Areas. As of 20 May 2010, there are four National Parks, 25 Protected Landscape Areas, 113 National Nature Reserves, 797 Nature Reserves, 107 National Nature Monuments and 1 205 Nature Monuments. In total, 2 251 Specially Protected Areas cover 15.8 % of the country´s territory (click here for more information, CZ version). In addition, there are 41 SPAs and 1 037 SCIs. Both types of designated sites are parts of the Natura 2000 network, covering 12.3 % of the country´s territory. There has been an overlap between the national system of protected areas and the Natura 2000 network: SPAs and PSCIs outside the Specially Protected Areas cover 3.1 % and 3.2 % of the country´s territory respectively (click here for more information).

The nature conservation legislation lists 527 wildlife species or subspecies as specially protected (46 fungi, 436 vascular plants, 147 invertebrates, 17 fish, 28 amphibians/reptiles, 115 birds and 38 mammals). For some of them, action plans have been implemented. Many activities on specially protected wildlife species have been carried out by NGOs (click here for more information).

The concept of a multilevel ecological network, the Territorial System of Ecological Stability of the Landscape, had been developed in the late 1970s. Establishing and managing ecological networks has been included in the nature conservation and landscape management legislation, namely in the Act. In addition, the issue has also been included in spatial planning legislation. Moreover, the TSES is very often considered as only paper or computer work (click here for more information, CZ version).

Nature conservation and landscape protection measures outside and inside Specially Protected Areas, as well as on privately owned land, can be financially supported by schemes, e.g. from the agri-environmnetal programmes or the operation programme ‘Environment 2007–13’ funded by the European Community budget as well as from national landscape management programmes (click here for more information, CZ version).

For improving the biodiversity conservation status in the Czech Republic, the following steps should be implemented:

  • Integration of biological diversity conservation into the policies of other sectors. The involvement of the general public as well as all the stakeholders.
  • The use of best science available (evidence-based conservation).
  • An improvement in communication, education and public awareness.

EEA indicators:

SEBI 025


[UP]

e – What is the 2020 outlook (date flexible) and how will this affect possible impacts on the natural environment and human health/well-being?


Evaluation:

Inadequate but improving (U1+)


Key message:

If the current trends continue, decline of the biodiversity will be accelerating, moreover the current scenarios expect the impact of the climate change on biological diversity.


Assessment:

If the current trends, particularly land-use changes, continue, decline in all the main biodiversity levels will accelerate in the Czech Republic. In addition, climate change effects on nature and the landscape are expected to be more pronounced across the country. Therefore, the Climate Protection Policy of the Czech Republic is currently under preparation, encompassing both mitigation and adaptation aspects of climate protection.


EEA indicators:

Not relevant


ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
CENIA, Czech Environmental Information Agency – http://issar.cenia.cz/issar/page.php?id=1838, http://issar.cenia.cz/issar/page.php?id=1839, http://issar.cenia.cz/issar/page.php?id=1840
Agency for Nature Conservation and Landscape Protection of CR – http://www.ochranaprirody.cz/index.php?lang=en, http://www.nature.cz/natura2000-design-en/hp.php
Czech Society for Ornithology
State of the Environment Report of the Czech Republic 2008

 
MP CENIA HM

List of indicators by themes