ISSaR

METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS

Last update
28.07.2014

 


Key question

What were the temperature and precipitation conditions on the Czech Republic’s territory in 2013?


Key message

 

In 2013 , there were normal temperatures and normal precipitation on the territory of the Czech Republic. The average annual temperature (7. 9 °C) was by 0.4 °C higher than the long-term mean (1961–1990), the annual rainfall (727 mm) represents 108% of the long-term mean
(1961–1990). There were months which were both below and above the average in comparison with the long-term mean; July was the warmest month (deviation +2.5°C), while March was the coldes t with deviation –3.2°C. In January and February, there were an increased number of synoptic situations causing poor dispersion conditions for pollutants in the air, which in total lasted for 23 days within this period.

 

During the year 2013, precipitation was distributed unevenly; in terms of rainfall, the richest months were May and especially June, when abundant rainfall resulted in floods. On the other hand, low total precipitation was recorded in April, July and December.

Overall assessment

Change since 1990

Change since 2000

Last year-to-year change

N/A

N/A

N/A


References to current conceptual and strategic documents and their targets

Temperature and precipitation conditions affect the national economy and they also have an impact on environmental burden and the state of the environment. Energy consumption, and therefore production of pollution from energy (electricity and heat) generation, is affected by temperature; in the winter, lower temperature increases heat consumption while in the summer, electricity consumption increases due to operation of air conditioning during hot days. Agricultural production, electricity generation from renewable sources and the sector of forestry all depend on temperature and precipitation conditions. Major impacts on the population and damage to the national economy are associated with emergency situations caused by hazardous hydrometeorological phenomena, such as floods, extreme droughts or very strong wind.

Indirect effect of the weather conditions consists in affecting the state of the environment. This concerns, in particular, the conditions for air pollutants dispersion in the air, which are, together with the emission production, the main factors in air quality fluctuation. In the summer, high temperatures and intense sunlight support formation of ground-level ozone, which is harmful to human health. Temperature and precipitation conditions also affect the surface water quality; high temperatures promote eutrophication of stagnant water and worsening the water quality for swimming.


Indicator assessment – graphic part

Chart 1: Long-term development of annual average air temperature (areal averages*) compared with the long-term mean (1961–1990), the Czech Republic [°C]
Source: The Czech Hydrometeorological Institute

The annual average air temperature, the Czech Republic

 
Note:
* Areal averages for temperature and precipitation are used in order to smoothen the spatial differentiation of temperature and precipitation as needed for expressing time dynamics and for comparisons with the norm. They are calculated using a method of mathematical interpolation and, rather than a value for any particular location, they express the average value for the entire Czech Republic (corresponding to the median altitude).
 
 
Data:

Chart 2: Monthly average air temperature (areal averages*) compared with the 1961–1990 long-term mean (for the last available year, see data), the Czech Republic [°C]
Source: The Czech Hydrometeorological Institute

Monthly average air temperature, the Czech Republic

 
Note:
* Areal averages for temperature and precipitation are used in order to smoothen the spatial differentiation of temperature and precipitation as needed for expressing time dynamics and for comparisons with the norm. They are calculated using a method of mathematical interpolation and, rather than a value for any particular location, they express the average value for the entire Czech Republic (corresponding to the median altitude).
 
 
Data:

Chart 3: Monthly precipitation totals (areal averages*) compared with the 1961–1990 long-term mean (for the last available year, see data), the Czech Republic [mm]
Source: The Czech Hydrometeorological Institute

Monthly precipitation totals, the Czech Republic

 
Note:
* Areal averages for temperature and precipitation are used in order to smoothen the spatial differentiation of temperature and precipitation as needed for expressing time dynamics and for comparisons with the norm. They are calculated using a method of mathematical interpolation and, rather than a value for any particular location, they express the average value for the entire Czech Republic (corresponding to the median altitude).
 
 
Data:

Indicator assessment – text part

There were normal temperatures on the territory of the Czech Republic in 2013; the average annual air temperature (7.9 °C) was by 0.4 °C higher than the long-term mean (1961–1990). However, months with both above-normal and below-normal temperatures have been recorded. The biggest positive deviation from normal temperatures was recorded in July (+2.5°C), the largest negative deviation was in March (–3.2°C). Like the previous years, the year 2013 also belongs to the years with a positive annual temperature deviation from the normal, in particular due to warm weather in the summer and at the end of the year. In the past 25 years, there have been only three years (2010, 1996 and 1991) with an average air temperature below the 1961–1990 mean. In comparison with the previous year 2012, the year 2013 was colder by 0.4 °C.

According to the WMO report on the state of the climate, the global temperature of the Earth's surface was by 0.5 °C higher in 2013 compared to the long-term mean (1961–1990), which is 14.0 °C. From a global perspective, the year 2013 was, along with the year 2007, the sixth warmest year during the whole period of instrumental measurement which runs from approximately 1850. Likewise the previous twelve years (2001–2012), the year 2013 also ranks among 15 warmest years ever recorded. Even for Europe the year 2013 was the sixth warmest year in history. In many European countries, a very hot summer with new temperature records was recorded.

In the Czech Republic, January was the coldest month of 2013, with the temperature –1.8 °C; however, deviation from the normal amounted to +1.0 °C and temperatures in January corresponded to the normal. After a warm beginning of the year, when there was mainly rainfall, the winter weather returned in the second January decade, which lasted until the end of the third decade in January. The warmer and colder periods alternated also during February and the month as a whole was normal in terms of temperature. Unusually cold weather lasted from 10th March until the end of the first April decade. In the coldest parts of this period, i.e. from 14th to 17th March and from 23rd to 26th March, the minimum temperatures were below the freezing point throughout the whole territory of the Czech Republic, in the mountains they dropped below –15 °C. As a result of this temperature development, March with the average temperature being –0.7 °C and the deviation from the normal being –3.1 °C was below normal. As early as on 18th April, however, the first summer day was recorded in some places with the maximum daily temperatures higher than 25 °C. That day, the highest temperatures were recorded in Doksany (28.7 °C) and Dobřichovice (28.6 °C) and temperatures above 20 °C were measured in the whole territory of the Czech Republic with the exception of the mountain regions. The months from April to June as a whole were normal in terms of temperature. In the period from 17th to 20th June, the first hot wave in 2013 was recorded, with the temperatures exceeding 30 °C on most of the Czech Republic’s territory. The highest temperature (37.2 °C) was measured on 18th June at the meteorological station Prague-Karlov.

The weather was very hot in July and August 2013. With an average temperature of 19.4 °C, which is by 2.5 °C above the normal, July ranked among extraordinarily above-normal months. August with temperature 17.7 °C, which is by 1.3 °C above the 1961–1990 mean, was above-normal in terms of temperatures. Hot and dry weather during July has led to an increased incidence of fires. During these months there were two hot waves in the territory of the Czech Republic. The first on was in the period from 22nd to 30th July, the other one from 1st to 8th August. The highest maximum temperature was measured on 8th August in Brod nad Dyjí and the value was 39.7 °C. This is the highest absolute maximum temperature ever recorded in Moravia.

While September temperatures were below normal (average temperature 11.8 °C), the temperatures at the end of the year were above normal. A colder episode with snow precipitation occurred only at the beginning of December, when it was associated with transit of a significant pressure low called Xaver. In the second decade of December, however, it was warmer and the warm and dry weather continued not only till the end of December but also till the end of the whole 2013–2014 winter period.

In 2013, there have been in the average 41 summer days and 13 tropical days in the Czech Republic, which are above-average values in both cases; the number of tropical days was more than a double in comparison with the normal. There were 121 frosty days and 43 icy days recorded in 2013. These are also slightly above-average numbers of the respective days.

Concerning the synoptic causes of worsened air quality in 2013, the daily average PM10 concentrations above 50 ug/m3 occurred most frequently within the synoptic types Ea (Eastern anticyclone), Ec (Eastern cyclone) and SEc (South-eastern cyclone) during which there are inversion and worsened dispersion conditions. During the winter period, these weather types occurred most at the beginning of the year, namely in January, when the Ea situation lasted for 5 days (in total these situations lasted for 11 days), and in February (Ea for 2 days, in total for 12 days). In the period from October to December 2013, these synoptic situations occurred for 7 days in total, of which one Ea situation lasted for 5 days in October.

In terms of precipitation, the year 2013 has been normal on the territory of the Czech Republic; the average annual rainfall (727 mm) represents 108% of the long-term mean (1961–1990). Distribution of rainfall during the year has been uneven. January, May, June and September can be included in the wet to very wet months while rainfalls recorded in April, July and December have been below normal.

After above-normal precipitation in January, the precipitations in February and March were within the normal limits. April was dry; the rainfall amounted only to 26 mm, which is 55% of the 1961–1990 normal. In the course of May and June, however, the significantly above-average rainfall, when more than a third of the total annual precipitation (259 mm) fell during the two months, caused the flood situation. In May, the average rainfall on the Czech Republic’s territory amounted to 113 mm, which represents 153% of the normal value. This is the fifth highest total rainfall for this month since 1961. The May rainfall resulted in considerable saturation of the territory, which increased the run-off response to the rainfall from the beginning of June.

June 2013 was very wet on the territory of the Czech Republic; the country’s area average of 146 mm represents 174% of the long-term mean (1961–1990). This is the highest June value and the sixth highest monthly rainfall in comparison with the monthly rainfall totals for all months since 1961. The highest total precipitation in June was observed in a belt stretching from Šumava Mts. and Novohradské Mts., across Central Bohemian Upland (Středočeská pahorkatina) and the Elbe valley to the Giant Mts. (Krkonoše) and Jizera Mts. (Jizerské hory) and further to the Frýdlant and Šluknov regions. Most of the precipitation fell in the mountainous areas; e.g. at Luční bouda (Giant Mts.), the monthly rainfall amounted to 372.2 mm. During June, there were 3 important precipitation episodes, most striking being the first one from 1st to 2nd June, when the 24-hour totals exceeded 100 mm in some places and extremity of the culmination flows exceeded the 100-year repetition period in the most affected areas.

After June, which was rich in precipitation, dry and hot July followed – the rainfall amounted to 34 mm, which is 43% of the long-term normal. August precipitation as a whole was within the normal limits, the September rainfall was above-normal – it amounted to 74 mm, which is 142% of the respective normal. Normal precipitation then followed in October and November. December precipitation was extraordinarily below normal and with a total of 19 mm (40% of the respective 1961–1990 normal) it is the driest month of the year.


Data sources

The Czech Hydrometeorological Institute


Links to additional information

Information about climate on the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute’s website
The Czech Hydrometeorological Institute’s Department of Climate Change
The World Meteorological Organization
The European Environment Agency

 

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